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English Costume by Dion Clayton Calthrop

English Costume by Dion Clayton Calthrop
Richard The First - 1189-1199

By Pauline Weston Thomas for Fashion-Era.com

English Costume by Dion Clayton Calthrop
Richard The First - 1189-1199

English Costume 1189-1199This costume history information consists of Pages 55 to 61 of the chapter on late 12th century dress in the era of Richard The First - 1189-1199 and is taken from English Costume by Dion Clayton Calthrop.

The 36 page section consists of a text copy of the book ENGLISH COSTUME PAINTED & DESCRIBED BY DION CLAYTON CALTHROP.  Visuals, drawings and painted fashion plates in the book have a charm of their own and are shown amid the text. The book covers both male and female dress history of over 700 years spanning the era 1066-1830. This page is about dress in the 10 year reign of King Richard The First - 1189-1199.

For the Introduction to this book see this introduction written by Dion Clayton Calthrop.  I have adjusted the images so they are mostly 400 pixels high and can be used for colouring worksheets where pupils add some costume/society facts.
My comments are in italics.

.

RICHARD THE FIRST

Reigned ten years: 1189-1199.
Born 1157. Married, 1191, to Berengaria of Navarre.

THE MEN

RICHARD THE FIRST COSTUME - MALE DRESS 1189AD.The King had but little influence over dress in his time, seeing that he left England as soon as he was made King, and only came back for two months in 1194 to raise money and to be crowned again.

The general costume was then as plain as it had ever been, with long tunics and broad belts fastened by a big buckle.

The difference in costume between this short reign and that of Henry II, is almost imperceptible; if any difference may be noted, it is in the tinge of Orientalism in the garments.

The Capacious Mantle

There is more of the long and flowing robe, more of the capacious mantle, the wider sleeve.

No doubt the many who came from the Crusades made a good deal of difference to English homes, and actual dresses and tunics from the East, of gorgeous colours and Eastern designs, were, one must suppose, to be seen in England.

Good Cloth

Cloth of gold and cloth of gold and silks - that is, warf of silk and weft of gold - were much prized, and were called by various names from the Persian, as 'ciclatoun,' 'siglaton.'

Such stuff, when of great thickness and value - so thick that six threads of silk or hemp were in the warf - was called 'samite.'

Later, when the cloth of gold was more in use, and the name had changed from 'ciclatoun' to 'bundekin,' and from that to 'tissue,' to keep such fine cloth from fraying or tarnishing, they put very thin sheets of paper away between the folds of the garments; so to this day we call such paper tissue-paper.

Leaf-gold was used sometimes over silk to give pattern and richness to it.

Abraham Thornton & An Old Law - Pick Up The Gauntlet

A curious survival of this time, which has a connection with costume, was the case of Abraham Thornton in 1818. Abraham Thornton was accused of having drowned Mary Ashford, but he was acquitted by the jury. This acquittal did not satisfy popular feeling, and the brother of Mary Ashford appealed.

Now Thornton was well advised as to his next proceeding, and, following the still existent law of this early time of which I write, he went to Westminster Hall, where he threw down, as a gage of battle, an antique gauntlet without fingers or thumb, of white tanned skin ornamented with silk fringes and sewn work, crossed by a narrow band of leather, the fastenings of leather tags and thongs.

This done, he declared himself ready to defend himself in a fight, and so to uphold his innocence, saying that he was within his rights, and that no judge could compel him to come before a jury.

This was held to be good and within the law, so Abraham Thornton won his case, as the brother refused to pick up the gauntlet. The scandal of this procedure caused the abolishment of the trial by battle, which had remained in the country's laws from the time of Henry II, until 1819.

It was a time of foreign war and improvement in military armour and arms. Richard I, favoured the cross-bow, and brought it into general use in England to be used in conjunction with the old 4-foot bow and the great bow 6 feet long with the cloth-yard arrow - a bow which could send a shaft through a 4-inch door.

A MAN OF THE TIME OF RICHARD I - 1189-1199 A MAN OF THE TIME OF RICHARD I - 1189-1199Orientalism

For some time this military movement, together with the influence of the East, kept England from any advance or great change in costume; indeed, the Orientalism reached a pitch in the age of Henry III, which, so far as costume is concerned, may be called the Age of Draperies.

To recall such a time in pictures, one must then see visions of loose-tuniced men, with heavy cloaks; of men in short tunics with sleeves tight or loose at the wrists; of hoods with capes to them, the cape-edge sometimes cut in a round design; of soft leather boots and shoes, the boots reaching to the calf of the leg.

To see in the streets bright Oriental colours and cloaks edged with broad bands of pattern; to see hooded heads and bared heads on which the hair was long; to see many long-bearded men; to see old men leaning on tan-handled sticks; the sailor in a cap or coif tied under his chin; the builder, stonemason, and skilled workman in the same coif; to see, as a whole, a brilliant shifting colour scheme in which armour gleamed and leather tunics supplied a dull, fine background. Among these one might see, at a town, by the shore, a thief of a sailor being carried through the streets with his head shaven, tarred and feathered.

THE WOMEN

It is difficult to describe an influence in clothes. It is difficult nowadays to say in millinery where Paris begins and London accepts. The hint of Paris in a gown suggests taste; the whole of Paris in a gown savours of servile imitation.COSTUME HISTORY 1199 WOMAN DRAWING

No well-dressed Englishwoman should, or does, look French, but she may have a subtle cachet of France if she choose.

The perfection of art is to conceal the means to the end; the perfection of dress is to hide the milliner in the millinery.

A Flavour Of Orientalism

The ladies of Richard First's time did not wear Oriental clothes, but they had a flavour of Orientalism pervading their dress - rather masculine Orientalism than feminine.

The long cloak with the cord that held it over the shoulders; the long, loose gown of fine colours and simple designs; the soft, low, heelless shoes; the long, unbound hair, or the hair held up and concealed under an untied wimple - these gave a touch of something foreign to the dress.

Away in the country there was little to dress for, and what clothes they had were made in the house. Stuffs brought home from Cyprus, from Palestine, from Asia Minor, were laboriously conveyed to the house, and there made up into gowns. Local smiths and silver-workers made them buckles and brooches and ornamental studs for their long belts, or clasps for their purses.

A wreck would break up on the shore near by, and the news would arrive, perhaps, that some bales of stuff were washed ashore and were to be sold.

A WOMAN OF THE TIME OF RICHARD I - 1189-1199

A WOMAN OF THE TIME OF RICHARD I - 1189-1199Left - In this costume plate the woman keeps her very full cloak in place by the cord which passes through loops. At the neck a large buckle holds the gown well together. The hem and neck of the gown are richly embellished with embroidery and the gown overall is ornamented with a simple diaper pattern.

The female anchorites of these days were busy gossips, and from their hermitage or shelter by a bridge on the road would see the world go by, and pick up friends by means of gifts of bandages or purses made by them, despite the fact that this traffic was forbidden to them.

So the lady in the country might get news of her lord abroad, and hear that certain silks and stuffs were on their way home.

The Gowns 1189-1199

The gowns they wore were long, flowing and loose; they were girded about the middle with leathern or silk belts, which drew the gown loosely together. The end of the belt, after being buckled, hung down to about the knee. These gowns were close at the neck, and there fastened by a brooch; the sleeves were wide until they came to the wrist, over which they fitted closely.

The cloaks were ample, and were held on by brooches or laces across the bosom.

The shoes were the shape of the foot, sewn, embroidered, elaborate.

The wimples were pieces of silk or white linen held to the hair in front by pins, and allowed to flow over the head at the back.

There were still remaining at this date women who wore the tight-fitting gown laced at the back, and who tied their chins up in gorgets.

English Costume by Dion Clayton Calthrop
Richard The First - 1189-1199
Born 1157. Married, 1191, to Berengaria of Navarre.

MAN -  TIME OF RICHARD I - 1189-1199 This costume history information consists of Pages 55 to 61 of the chapter on 12th century dress in the era of Richard The First - 1189-1199 and is taken from English Costume by Dion Clayton Calthrop.

The 36 page section consists of a text copy of the book ENGLISH COSTUME PAINTED & DESCRIBED BY DION CLAYTON CALTHROP.  Visuals, drawings and painted fashion plates in the book have a charm of their own and are shown amid the text. The book covers both male and female dress history of over 700 years spanning the era 1066-1830. This page is about dress in the 10 year reign of King Richard The First - 1189-1199.

For the Introduction to this book see this introduction written by Dion Clayton Calthrop.  I have adjusted the images so they are mostly 400 pixels high and can be used for colouring worksheets where pupils add some costume/society facts.
My comments are in italics.

You have been reading English Costume History at www.fashion-era.com © from the chapter  Richard The First 1199-1189, from Dion Clayton Calthrop's book English Costume.

Page Added 4 August 2010. Ref:-P.788

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