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English Costume Henry Second by Dion Clayton Calthrop

English Costume by Dion Clayton Calthrop
Henry The Second 1154-1189

By Pauline Weston Thomas for Fashion-Era.com

English Costume by Dion Clayton Calthrop
Henry The Second 1154-1189

Female Costume - Henry Second EraThis costume history information consists of Pages 46 to 54 of the chapter on late 12th century dress in the era of Henry The Second 1154-1189 and is taken from English Costume by Dion Clayton Calthrop.

The 36 page section consists of a text copy of the book ENGLISH COSTUME PAINTED & DESCRIBED BY DION CLAYTON CALTHROP.  Visuals, drawings and painted fashion plates in the book have a charm of their own and are shown amid the text. The book covers both male and female dress history of over 700 years spanning the era 1066-1830. This page is about dress in the 35 year reign of King Henry The Second 1154-1189.

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For the Introduction to this book see this introduction written by Dion Clayton Calthrop.  I have adjusted the images so they are mostly 400 pixels high and can be used for colouring worksheets where pupils add some costume/society facts.
My comments are in italics.Male Costume - Henry Second Era

HENRY THE SECOND

Reigned thirty-five years: 1154-1189.
Born 1133. Married, 1152, to Eleanor of Guienne.

THE MEN

The King himself is described as being careless of dress, chatty, outspoken. His hair was close-cropped, his neck was thick, and his eyes were prominent; his cheek-bones were high, and his lips coarse.

Plain Costume - Rich Materials

The costume of this reign was very plain in design, but rich in stuffs. Gilt spurs were attached to the boots by red leather straps, gloves were worn with jewels in the backs of them, and the mantles seem to have been ornamented with designs.

The time of patterns upon clothes began. The patterns were simple, as crescents, lozenges, stars.

William de Magna Villa had come back from the Holy Land with a new fabric, a precious silk called 'imperial,' which was made in a workshop patronized by the Byzantine Emperors.

A MAN OF THE TIME OF HENRY II - 1154-1189 COSTUME - A MAN OF THE TIME OF HENRY II. (1154-1189)

The costume plate shows a man wearing a short cloak and the long tunic is held together by a brooch at the neck. The tunic is girdled by a belt with extra long tongue flaps. To complete his outfit he wears gloves on his hands.

The long tunic and the short supertunic were still worn, but these were not so frequently split up at the side.

High boots reaching to the calf of the leg were in common use.

That part of the hood which fell upon the shoulders was now cut in a neat pattern round the edge.

Silks, into which gold thread was sewn or woven, made fine clothes, and cloth cloaks lined with expensive furs, even to the cost of a thousand pounds of our money, were worn.

Decline of Trousers To Hose

The loose trouser was going out altogether, and in its stead the hose were made to fit more closely to the leg, and were all of gay colours; they were gartered with gold bands crossed, the ends of which had tassels, which hung down when the garter was crossed and tied about the knee.

Court Manteau

Henry, despite his own careless appearance, was nicknamed Court Manteau, or Short Mantle, on account of a short cloak or mantle he is supposed to have brought into fashion.

The shirts of the men, which showed at the opening of the tunic, were buttoned with small gold buttons or studs of gold sewn into the linen.

The initial difference in this reign was the more usual occurrence of patterns in diaper upon the clothes.

A Yard In Length

The length of a yard was fixed by the length of the King's arm.

With the few exceptions mentioned, the costume is the same as in the time of Stephen.

St. Thomas à Becket

It is curious to note what scraps of pleasant gossip come to us from these early times: St. Thomas à Becket dining off a pheasant the day before his martyrdom; the angry King calling to his knights, 'How a fellow that hath eaten my bread, a beggar that first came to my Court on a lame horse, dares to insult his King and the Royal Family, and tread upon my whole kingdom, and not one of the cowards I nourish at my table, not one will deliver me of this turbulent priest!' - the veins no doubt swelling on his bull-like neck, the prominent eyes bloodshot with temper, the result of that angry speech, to end in the King's public penance before the martyr's tomb.

Picture the scene at Canterbury on August 23, 1179, when Louis VII, King of France, dressed in the manner and habit of a pilgrim, came to the shrine and offered there his cup of gold and a royal precious stone, and vowed a gift of a hundred hogsheads of wine as a yearly rental to the convent.

A common sight in London streets at this time was a tin medal of St. Thomas hung about the necks of the pilgrims.

»

Henry II, The Welsh Bards & King Arthur's Tomb 1172 Glastonbury,

And here I cannot help but give another picture.

Henry II, passing through Wales on his way to Ireland in 1172, hears the exploits of King Arthur which are sung to him by the Welsh bards. In this song the bards mention the place of King Arthur's burial, at Glastonbury Abbey in the churchyard. When Henry comes back from Ireland he visits the Abbot of Glastonbury, and repeats to him the story of King Arthur's tomb.

One can picture the search: the King talking eagerly to the Abbot; the monks or lay-brothers digging in the place indicated by the words of the song; the knights in armour, their mantles wrapped about them, standing by.

Then, as the monks search 7 feet below the surface, a spade rings upon stone. Picture the interest, the excitement of these antiquarians. It is a broad stone which is uncovered, and upon it is a thin leaden plate in the form of a corpse, bearing the inscription:

'HIC JACET SEPULTUS INCLYTUS REX ARTURIUS IN INSULA AVALONIA.'

They draw up this great stone, and with greedy eyes read the inscription. Women's Chin Bands -  English Costume C12th.The monks continue to dig. Presently, at the depth of 16 feet, they find the trunk of a tree, and in its hollowed shape lie Arthur and his Queen - Arthur and Guinevere, two names which to us now are part of England, part of ourselves, as much as our patron St. George.

Arthur & His Queen - Arthur and Guinevere

Here they lie upon the turf, and all the party gaze on their remains. The skull of Arthur is covered with wounds; his bones are enormous. The Queen's body is in a good state of preservation, and her hair is neatly plaited, and is of the colour of gold. Suddenly she falls to dust.

They bury them again with great care. So lay our national hero since he died at the Battle of Camlan in Cornwall in the year 542, and after death was conveyed by sea to Glastonbury, and all traces of his burial-place lost except in the songs of the people until such day as Henry found him and his Queen.

THE WOMEN

About this time came the fashion of the chin-band, and again the glory of the hair was hidden under the wimple.C12Th Chin Bands.

Chin Bands - Above Right

To dress a lady's hair for this time the hair must be brushed out, and then divided into two parts: these are to be plaited, and then brought round the crown of the head and fastened in front above the forehead. The front pieces of hair are to be neatly pushed back from the forehead, to show a high brow.

Now a cloth of linen is taken, folded under the chin, and brought over the top of the head, and there pinned. Then another thin band of linen is placed round the head and fastened neatly at the back; and over all a piece of fine linen is draped, and so arranged that it shall just cover the forehead-band and fall on to the shoulders. This last piece of linen is fastened to the chin-band and the forehead-strap by pins.

The Linen Cap

This fashion gave rise in later times to a linen cap; the forehead-strap was increased in height and stiffened so that it rose slightly above the crown of the head, and the wimple, instead of hanging over it, was sewn down inside it, and fell over the top of the cap. Later the cap was sewn in pleats.

The gown of this time was quite loose, with a deep band round the neck and round the hem of the skirts, which were very full. So far as one can tell, it was put on over the head, having no other opening but at the neck, and was held at the waist by an ornamental girdle.

The chemise showed above the neck of the gown, which was fastened by the usual round brooch.

 

A WOMAN OF THE TIME OF HENRY II - 1154-1189

Although discreet its possible to just about see the chin band the 12th century woman wears in this costume plate. The chin-band passes under the wimple and the band is pinned to hold it around the head.A WOMAN OF THE TIME OF HENRY II - 1154-1189

The sleeves were well fitting, rather loose at the elbow, and fell shaped over the wrist, where there was a deep border of embroidery. It is quite possible that the cuffs and hem may have been made of fur.

The shoes were, as usual to the last two reigns, rather blunt at the toe, and generally fitting without buckle, button, or strap round the ankle, where they were rolled back.

The Girdle Belt

Above the waist the tied girdle was still worn, but this was being supplanted by a broad belt of silk or ornamented leather, which fastened by means of a buckle. The tongue of the belt was made very long, and when buckled hung down below the knee.

The cloaks, from the light way in which they are held, appear to have been made of silk or some such fine material as fine cloth. They are held on to the shoulders by a running band of stuff or a silk cord, the ends of which pass through two fasteners sewn on to the cloak, and these are knotted or have some projecting ornament which prevents the cord from slipping out of the fastener.

In this way one sees the cloak hanging from the shoulders behind, and the cord stretched tight across the breast, or the cord knotted in a second place, and so bringing the cloak more over the shoulders.

Effigy of the Queen at Fontevraud

The effigy of the Queen at Fontevraud shows her dress covered with diagonal bars of gold, in the triangles of which there are gold crescents placed from point to point, and no doubt other ladies of her time had their emblems or badges embroidered into their gowns.

HENRY THE SECOND

Reigned thirty-five years: 1154-1189.
Born 1133. Married, 1152, to Eleanor of Guienne.

12th Century Male Costume This costume history information consists of Pages 46 to 54 of the chapter on late 12th century dress in the era of Henry The Second 1154-1189 and is taken from English Costume by Dion Clayton Calthrop.

The 36 page section consists of a text copy of the book ENGLISH COSTUME PAINTED & DESCRIBED BY DION CLAYTON CALTHROP.  Visuals, drawings and painted fashion plates in the book have a charm of their own and are shown amid the text. The book covers both male and female dress history of over 700 years spanning the era 1066-1830. This page is about dress in the 35 year reign of King Henry The Second 1154-1189.

For the Introduction to this book see this introduction written by Dion Clayton Calthrop.  I have adjusted the images so they are mostly 400 pixels high and can be used for colouring worksheets where pupils add some costume/society facts.
My comments are in italics.

You have been reading about everyday costume at www.fashion-era.com © in the time Henry The Second 1154-1189.
Henry The First 1100-1135 - English Costume by Dion Clayton Calthrop.

Page Added 4 August 2010. Ref:-P.787

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